For America: Marx and Others

Many people in America are often confused about political terminology, which has significantly different meanings than those globally, so this post is for informing people of the most common usage of each term.

  • Marxism – philosophical tradition that analyzes social conditions through material circumstances, often related to political economics.
    • opposite of Hegelianism, a philosophical tradition that analyzes social order through ideals rather than analysis of material circumstances
    • often confused with communism and socialism, which are political ideologies not philosophies
  • Fascism/corporatist capitalism – political ideology that argues that hierarchies are inherent and inevitable and only the creation of a rigid social order will rejuvenate the nation.
    • opposite of Leninism, a political ideology of the far left, though it shares many state interventionist policies with Leninism
    • often confused with capitalism, an economic system which advocates the individual ownership of property
  • Leninism/state socialism – political ideology that argues that the state should have total control of citizens and total ownership of all property and labor
    • opposite of fascism, a political ideology of the far right, though it shares many totalitarian characteristics with fascism
    • often confused with democratic socialism, a political ideology of the center left, which opposes economic totalitarianism
  • Democratic socialism/anarchosyndicalism – a political ideology which believe in liberation through class solidarity, often associated with center left coalitions of organized labor, peasants, and the working class
    • opposite of one-nation conservatism, a political ideology of the center right
    • often confused with Leninism, a political ideology of the far left
  • One-nation conservatism/christian democracy – a political ideology which believes in organic social bonds, often through noblese obligee, aristocratic paternalism, and often associated with center right coalitions of property owners, the poor, and the upper class.
    • opposite of democratic socialism, a political ideology of the center left
    • often confused with monarchism, a political ideology which supports inherited dictatorship
  • Classical liberalism/republicanism – political ideology which opposes monarchy and divine rule, and instead advocates for a popularly governed society
    • opposite of monarchism, a political ideology justifying monarchial rule
    • often confused with anarchocapitalism, a political ideology which believes in the abolition of the welfare state but retaining political rights for property owners
    • classical liberalism socialism + conservatism
  • Capitalism – economic system based on individual ownership of property, often organized through corporations, which take on responsibility for organizations’ efforts and failures rather than natural persons
    • opposite of communism, a social system based on collective ownership of property
    • often confused with free market economy, an economic system based on egalitarian firm competition through the balance of consumer demand and producer supply
  • Fabianism – British ideology which believes in welfare state to support workers
  • Trotskyism – Russian ideology which supports international socialism, a continued worker’s “permanent revolution”, but opposes the two-stage theory, and instead argues that socialist revolution can begin even in non-capitalist societies.